Bodyweight of mice received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction but not 100 mg/kg was considerably improved at 7th day and 14th day, with percentage increment of 4.95% and 6.32%, respectively, compared to the baseline. The marc was remacerated two times with fresh solvent (80% methanol), each for 3 days, and the filtrates so obtained from the sequential macerations were allowed to concentrate removing the methanol solvent by a rotavapor followed by drying in an oven with a temperature of not greater than 40°C, and the aqueous part was removed by lyophilization under reduced pressure. In this model, BGL of mice was reduced by different doses of hydromethanolic crude extract of Ajuga integrifolia root at the 4th hr and 6th hr compared to the baseline value, but a significant difference was not noticed. No obstante sólo debe usarse el nombre científico aceptado, quedando dichas sinonimias como referencias a textos antiguos, no actualizados o bases de conocimiento. Following 30 minutes of after crude extracts, standard drugs, and DW administration, each mouse was fed with 2 g/kg solution of 40% glucose in a quantity of 1 ml/kg. de largo y flores de color azulado ceniciento. GLC was used as a standard drug on basis of previous reports on earlier literatures [23, 24]. value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. It is taken as a diuretic, and for inflammatory diseases and infections. Ajuga Parviflora. Medicinal plants are among the most common sources and mainstay options of medicines for about 75–80% of world population [30]. Learn more about Ajuga Nipponensis uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Ajuga Nipponensis Fasting BGL was reduced significantly at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction of AIR at 7th day and 14th day compared to the 100 mg/kg treated group and the diabetic control (Table 7). Within groups analysis revealed that oral glucose loading caused a statistically significant increment in BGL after 30 minutes in all groups compared to the baseline fasting BGL regardless of the treatments given. Mice were randomly divided into five groups (6 mice per group) in the normoglycemic, oral glucose loaded, and one dose treated diabetic mice models. Ajuga / ə ˈ dʒ uː É¡ ə /, also known as bugleweed, ground pine, carpet bugle, or just bugle, is a genus of 40 species annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the Ajugeae tribe of the mint family Lamiaceae, with most species native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, but also two species in southeastern Australia. The mice used for the study were acquired from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute. A single dose of AIRE ranging from 100 mg/kg to 400 mg/kg and GLC 5 mg/kg were given to mice in the normoglycemic model. Molalegne Alene, Mohammedbrhan Abdelwuhab, Assefa Belay, and Taklo Simeneh Yazie were involved in the design and write up of the study. In the present study, adequate data were generated that uphold the claimed antihyperglycemic activity of the medicinal plant Ajuga integrifolia in the community. Effect of single dose AIRE on hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Molalegn Alene conducted the actual study and statistical analysis. 1. [1] Comprende 188 especies descritas y de estas, solo 70 aceptadas. Ohrožené a chráněné druhy rostlin. They should be spaced 15 to 30 cm apart in the spring or autumn. Compared to the negative control, 100 mg/kg AIRE did not result in a significant () reduction of hyperglycemia at all time point except at the 2nd hr (120 minutes), whereas hyperglycemia was reduced significantly by GLC at the1st () and 2nd () hours. The reduction of fasting BGL in the GLC-treated group was significant (), with a reduction of 24.19%, 37.8%, 48.4%, and 65.2% at the 2nd hr, 4th hr, 6th hr, and 8th hr compared to their baseline values. G. Chekole, “Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia,”. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. It causes pancreatic β-cell destruction via DNA alkylation and strand breakage, thereby causing diabetes mellitus [36, 37]. The record derives from WCSP which reports it as an accepted name (record 5288) with … A large number of compounds have already been isolated from A. remota , including ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide ( 6 ), ajugarin-I ( 1 ), 8- O -acetylharpagide ( 5 ) and several phytoecdysteroids. Group 1 was diabetic control treated with 10 ml/kg DW; doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg root extract of plant were given to experimental groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively; group 5 was diabetic positive control treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, whereas group 6 was normal control treated with 10 ml/kg DW. Subspecies aurea (fabaceae) in mice,”, T. B. Tafesse, A. Hymete, Y. Mekonnen, and M. Tadesse, “Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice,”, W. Tamiru, E. Engidawork, and K. Asres, “Evaluation of the effects of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) Significant difference in baseline fasting BGL was not observed throughout all groups. : from ethnopharmacology to phytomedical perspective in the treatment of malaria,”, J. El Hilaly and B. Lyoussi, “Hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats,”, W. Hailu and E. Engidawork, “Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves in mice,”, M. Radenković, M. Stojanović, and M. Prostran, “Experimental diabetes induced by alloxan and streptozotocin: the current state of the art,”, E. U. Etuk, “Animals models for studying diabetes mellitus,”, D. A. Rees and J. C. Alcolado, “Animal models of diabetes mellitus,”, L. A. Hilakivi-Clarke, K. M. Wozniak, M. J. Durcan, and M. Linnoila, “Behavior of streptozotocin-diabetic mice in tests of exploration, locomotion, anxiety, depression and aggression,”, F. R. Malaisse-Lagae and W. J. Malaisse, “Stimulus-secretion coupling of glucose-induced insulin release. 2020, Article ID 6642588, 11 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6642588, 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Para su información, una sinonimia no es más que otro nombre científico para un mismo taxón. Both taxonomists and users of taxonomies should benefit from this. In comparison to the diabetic control, GLC significantly improved the bodyweight loss of STZ-induced diabetic mice at 7th day and 14th day of treatment (Table 5). A total of 2 weeks was used to observe for development of any signs of toxicity [20]. Nevertheless, the present study recommends more in-depth molecular studies to determine the precise mechanism of Ajuga integrifolia to lower blood glucose. 425 guideline, the acute oral toxicity test was performed [19]. Compared to both the baseline and negative control values, the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg chloroform and n-hexane fractions revealed no significant difference in BGL (Table 6). The datasets used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Diabetes and its complications caused significant deaths which are estimated to be 4.2 million in 2019. It is similar in structure to glucose and hence competes with glucose for transport via pancreas beta cell membrane transporter GLUT-2 and is given for the laboratory animals in a fasting state to overcome competition by glucose for entry [21, 38]. The dried roots of the plant were pulverized into coarse powder by an appropriate electrical miller. In Ethiopia, one of the vernacular name of A. remota is Armagusa (oromiffa), the name given by the community that uses this plant for the management of diarrhea [ 5 ]. Ajuga Integrifolia, Traditional Medicine for Malaria and Other Diseases As I was shopping for house plants the other day, I engaged the nursery attendant on his knowledge of medicinal herbs. Variation in fasting BGL was significant in normoglycemic mice at the 7th day and 14th day of the study procedure, but a significant increase in fasting BGL was seen in the diabetic control group compared to normal control and repeated daily extract doses treated groups. Blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by the i-QARE DSW Taiwan glucometer, and measurement was carried out in triplicates so that the average value could be taken. Mice were screened for diabetes after 3 days of STZ injection, and fasting BGL > 200 mg/dl was included in the study as diabetic mice [25, 26]. Traditionally Ajuga has been used as a generic, specifically to treat heart diseases, muscle and stomach aches. Thus, the present study was performed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the root extract and solvent fraction of Ajuga integrifolia in mice. First, STZ was dissolved in 0.1 M cold citrate buffer (pH = 4.5). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity of Ajuga integrifolia. In addition, the roots of Ajuga integrifolia have larger amounts of chromium which may be correlated to its use as treatment for DM [18]. This was validated after 72 hours of STZ injection with sustained hyperglycemia. Compared to baseline, fasting BGL was reduced by GLC, with percentage reduction of 60.8% and 65.2% after 7th day and 14th day of treatment, respectively. Therefore, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the AIRE can be considered to be more than 2000 mg/kg. A mouse receiving 400 mg/kg crude root extract showed a statistically significant reduction in BGL at 2nd hr compared to 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Ajuga integrifolia is an herb belonging to Lamiaceae family under genus Ajuga and is locally known as “Tut Astel” and “Akorarach” in Amharic and “Harmegusa” in Oromifa in various parts of Ethiopia [9–11]. All the authors approved the submitted version of the manuscript. The AIRE at these doses improved bodyweight significantly () at 7th day and ) at 14th day compared to the respective baseline. Box 196, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia, Pharmacology Unit and Research Team, Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, P.O. Significant increase in bodyweight was not noticed in mice treated with each of the three doses of aqueous fraction of AIRE at 7th day and 14th day of treatment compared to their baseline bodyweight in within group comparison (Table 8). The aqueous and occasionally alcohol infusion of the fresh or dried leaves or root of the Ajuga integrifolia are traditionally used for treating DM [13]. In single dose of the three solvent root fraction treated diabetic mice model, mice were randomly divided into 11 groups (each group comprised 6 mice). They grow to 5–50 cm tall, with opposite leaves. Between groups analysis depicted that bodyweight loss of the diabetic control mice was significant at 7th day and 14th day compared to the aqueous fraction treated groups, normal control group, and GLC-treated group (Table 8). pero también dos especies se encuentran en Australia.Tienen hojas opuestas de 5-50 cm. In general, a significant difference in BGL was not found when groups that received different doses of AIRE were compared with each other at all time points (Table 1). There was a significant reduction of BGL in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE received groups at 8th hr compared to the 100 mg/kg AIRE received group when within a group comparison was performed. The AIRE 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced fasting BGL significantly at the 7th day and 14th day compared to the baseline value. Ajuga és un gènere d'unes 40 - 50 espècies d'angiospermes, caduques i perennes de la família lamiaceae. on glucose handling in normal, glucose loaded and diabetic rodents,”, N. Z. Baquer, P. Kumar, A. Taha, R. Kale, S. Cowsik, and P. McLean, “Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues,”, Y. M. Belayneh, Z. Birhanu, E. M. Birru, and G. Getenet, “Evaluation of in vivo antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic, and in vitro antioxidant activities of hydromethanolic root extract of Datura stramonium L.(Solanaceae),”, J. D. Clark, G. F. Gebhart, J. C. Gonder, M. E. Keeling, and D. F. Kohn, “The 1996 guide for the care and use of laboratory animals,”, S. Sen, R. Chakraborty, C. Sridhar, Y. S. Reddy, and B. From 750 g of the plant material used for extraction, 164 g of dried grey extract was collected after completing the extraction process with a percentage yield of about 21.9% w/w. Our Ajuga extract is made from Ajuga turkestanica standardized to 2% total ecdysteroids. The projected number of people aged 20–79 years with diabetes was 463 million worldwide in 2019. Lamiaceae is one of the plant families that have hypoglycemic activity. Diabetes mellitus was effectively induced by administering STZ solution (150 mg/kg) to all groups of mice. Loài này được Buch.-Ham. & Mey. Benefits of Bugleweed Image by Katja Schulz / CC BY-SA 2.0 With its scientific name ajuga bracteosa and ajuga integrifolia, this plant is also known as bracted bugleweed, blue bugle, bungle, and small-flowered bugleweed, in English. Overnight fasted STZ-induced diabetic mice were grouped into 6 groups (6 mice per groups) at random. According to the limit test of OECD No. Then, the n-hexane layer so formed was poured into a beaker and labeled as “n-hexane fraction.” The aqueous remainder was again mixed with same quantity of chloroform and shaken similarly, and the chloroform layer obtained was decanted to a second beaker and labeled as “chloroform fraction” likewise. Ajuga integrifolia was confirmed to have well-established in vitro antioxidant activities and had inhibitory concentration, IC50 value of about 18.9 [17], giving hint the plant may have antidiabetic activity. For fractionation, 100 g of methanol crude extract was suspended in a separatory funnel with 400 ml of distilled water. Ajuga es un género de plantas con flores, caducas y perennes de la familia Lamiaceae. The loss of bodyweight in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly improved by GLC () at the 14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control. How to Grow Bugleweed / Ajuga It is best to sow on the soil surface, then cover Ajuga seeds with a light dusting of soil on top. Antioxidants are known to prevent oxidative stress, thereby treating DM and its complications [14–16]. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison test was used to analyze the data. Ajuga integrifolia; Ajuga remota ` Ajuga bracteosa; Flora . values <0.05 were set as statistically significant. Between groups analysis showed no significant difference in baseline fasting BGL throughout groups. Development of DM involves different pathogenic processes, and these range from autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells that result in absolute insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in insulin resistance. The increased fasting BGL at 30 minutes can be explained that the glucose oral load was absorbed and reached systemic circulation by this time. It is not scientifically validated for its antidiabetic activity previously. Group 1 (negative control) was treated with 10 ml/kg DW; the 9 experimental groups received solvent fraction of the root extract of the plant (groups 2, 3, and 4 received three different doses of aqueous fraction of the root extract of the plant; groups 5, 6, and 7 received three different doses of n-hexane fraction of the root extract of the plant; and groups 8, 9, and 10 received three different doses of chloroform fraction of the root extract of the plant). and with the toxicity study of leaf extract of the same plant [24]. Són naturals d'Europa, Àsia i Àfrica però també podem trobar dos espècies en Austràlia. It reduced fasting BGL considerably at these time points compared to the diabetic control as well. GLC 5 mg/kg, however, reduced BGL more significantly at 2nd hr, 4th hr, and 6th hr compared to each groups (negative control, three test groups with three different doses of AIRE) and baseline value. Chú thích Liên kết ngoài. Publicado en Lamiaceae, window.setTimeout(function() { window.location.href = "http://www.botanicayjardines.com/ajuga-integrifolia/redirigido-desde/sinonimia-ajuga-integrifolia-var-canescens/"; }, 10000); document.write('Usted será redirigido de forma automática a la ficha correcta en 10 segundos. Data analysis was performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Between groups analysis revealed that aqueous fraction of Ajuga integrifolia at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg showed virtually significant () reduction in BGL by decreasing with 16.8% and 21.10% at the 8th hr compared to hexane and chloroform fractions of the same dose. In the use of synthetic medicines for the treatment of various diseases, free radicals are often generated in the body which may result in an additional disease. According to the results of the first mouse, another four female mice were recruited and fasted for 4 hours and then given a single dose of 2 g/kg and was observed rigorously in the same manner. The fasting BGL of the normal control groups, however, did not exhibit remarkable change throughout the study period. The basis of the abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in diabetes is insufficient action of insulin on target tissues [3, 4]. Male mice were used in all mice models (normoglycemic, oral glucose loaded, one dose treated diabetic, and repeated dose treated diabetic mice) because female mice are less sensitive to insulin [21] and STZ compared to male mice [20, 22]. According to between groups analysis, it was observed that 100 mg/kg AIRE did not improve bodyweight at the7th day and14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control, but at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, AIRE improved significantly the bodyweight of the mice () at the 7th day and () at the 14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control. Or plant extracts have been scientifically validated for its antidiabetic activity of repeated doses! Filter paper no then, the present study was conducted based on the 7th day and at... Basis of previous reports on earlier literatures ajuga integrifolia benefits 23 ] keeps them nice and short blood glucose to! 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